Prague has became one of Europe’s most popular destinations. Why? First, it’s still a bargain in comparison with the rest of Europe, and it’s fun — there’s always a party going on and Czech beer – a favorite around the world â€‘ is cheap. People come here to see Prague’s unparalleled architecture preserved over the centuries by its kings, artists, and citizens, despite natural disasters and wars. Sealed off from Westerners for a few decades by the ruling communist regime, Prague is now pulsating with energy, with dance, music, modern arts and innovative design attracting some of world’s best music festivals, visual arts and sport events. Prague can satisfy any taste.
History and architecture buffs will be delighted to visit Prague Castle, St Vitus Cathedral, Old Town Square, The Loreto and the Old Jewish Synagogue, representing eclectic architectural stylesâ€‘ from Romanesque and Renaissance to Art Nouveau and Cubist. Art lovers can spend days admiring medieval and early Renaissance paintings at St Agnes’s Convent and studying Art Nouveau works of Alfons Mucha; and music and performing arts enthusiasts may choose from a variety of great performances: Prague is home to the National Opera, the Prague Philharmonic Orchestra, and Black Light Theatre. There are dozens of bars, clubs and restaurants, with cuisines from around the world.Kids will be fascinated by marionette theatres and puppet stores, and the Astronomical Clock on the Old Town Square.Allthough Prague is very well known from Summer holidays it is also very agreeable to visit Prague in the weeks before Christmas. Especially the old city with his Staromestske Namesty is very pleasant. Whether you visit Prague in the Summer or in the Winter there always are lots of tourists. Generally speaking the acommodations in Winter are much cheaper.
Sessions and Tracks
SESSIONS AND TRACKS
Biomass is organic matter removed from living, or as of late living organisms. Biomass can be used as a wellspring of energy and it frequently coordinates to plants or plant-based issue which are not utilized for sustenance or bolster, and are absolutely called lignocellulosic biomass. As an energy source, biomass can either be utilized straightforwardly by means of ignition to deliver warm, or optionally in the wake of changing it to various types of biofuel. Transformation of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different techniques which are for the most part arranged into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods.Biomass can be changed over to other usable types of energy like methane gas or transportation powers like ethanol and biodiesel. Spoiling trash, and farming and human waste, all discharge methane gas, likewise called landfill gas or biogas. Yields, for example, corn and sugarcane can be fermented to deliver the transportation fuel ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be created from remaining nourishment items like vegetable oils and animal fats. Biomass can be changed over to different structures for utilization they are. Chemical transformation , electrochemical change, thermal change and biochemical transformations.
Track 2: Algae Biofuels
Algae fuel or algal biofuel is a substitute to fluid petroleum products that uses algae as its wellspring of vitality rich oils. Likewise, algae powers are a substitute to basic known biofuel sources, for example, corn and sugarcane. Different organizations and government offices are supporting endeavors to decrease capital and working expenses and influence algae to fuel creation financially achievable. Like non-renewable energy source, algae fuel discharges CO2 when copied, yet not at all like petroleum product, algae fuel and different biofuels just discharge CO2 as of late pulled back from the atmosphere by means of photosynthesis as the algae or plant developed. The energy crisis and the world food crisis have sparked interest in algaeculture (farming algae) for making biodiesel and other biofuels utilizing land unbefitting for agriculture. Among algal powers' appealing qualities are that they can be developed with immaterial effect on crisp water assets, can be produced utilizing saline and wastewater, have a high blaze point, and are biodegradable and similarly innocuous to nature if spilled. Algae cost more per unit mass than other progressed biofuel trims because of high capital and working expenses, yet are announced to produce in the vicinity of 10 and 100 times more fuel for each unit area.
Track 3: Biodiesel
Biodiesel shows a animal fat-based or vegetable oil diesel fuel involving long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters. Biodiesel is generally made by synthetically responding lipids (e.g., soybean oil, vegetable oil, creature (fat)) with a alcohol producing unsaturated fat esters. Biodiesel is recommended to be used in standard diesel motors and is in this way all around characterized from the vegetable and waste oils used to work fuel changed over diesel motors. Biodiesel can be utilized independently, or mixed with petrodiesel in any extents. Biodiesel mixes can likewise be used as heating oil.
Track 4: Bio Refineries
A biorefinery is an inside that merges biomass transformation procedures and gear to produce fuels, power, heat, and chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery idea is parallel to the present oil refinery, which makes different fuels and items from oil. Biorefining is the maintainable change of biomass into a range of bio-based items and bioenergy. By delivering different items, a biorefinery exploits the different parts in biomass and their intermediates along these lines expanding the esteem obtained from the biomass feedstock. A biorefinery could, for example, fabricate one or a few low-volume, however high-esteem, synthetic or nutraceutical items and a low-esteem, yet high-volume fluid transportation fuel, for example, biodiesel. In the meantime creating power and process heat, by joined heat and power (CHP) innovation, for its own utilization and maybe satisfactory available to be purchased of power to the neighborhood utility. The high-esteem items support productivity, the high-volume fuel helps address vitality issues, and the power generation helps to bring down vitality costs and limit ozone depleting substance emanations from traditional power plant offices. Albeit a few offices win that can be called bio-refineries, the bio-refinery still can't seem to be completely proficient. Future biorefineries may assume a fundamental part in yielding chemicals and materials that are generally extricated from oil.
Track 5: Biogas
Biogas ordinarily alludes to a blend of various gases delivered by the breakdown of organic issue without oxygen. Biogas can be delivered from crude materials, for example, agrarian waste, compost, city squander, plant material, sewage, green waste or nourishment squander. Biogas is a renewable energy source.
Biogas can be delivered by anaerobic assimilation with methanogen or anaerobic creatures, which process material inside a shut framework, or fermentation of biodegradable materials.Biogas is basically methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have little measures of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), dampness and siloxanes. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy discharge permits biogas to be utilized as a fuel; it can be utilized for any heating reason, for example, cooking. It can likewise be utilized as a part of a gas motor to change over the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. Local biogas plants change over animals fertilizer and night soil into biogas and slurry, the aged compost. This innovation is attainable for little holders with domesticated animals delivering 50 kg fertilizer for every day, a likeness around 6 pigs or 3 dairy animals. This fertilizer must be collectable to blend it with water and bolster it into the plant. Toilets can be associated. Another precondition is the temperature that influences the fermentation procedure. With an ideal at 36 C° the innovation particularly applies for those living in a (sub) tropical atmosphere. This makes the innovation for little holders in creating nations regularly reasonable.
Track 6: Bioalcohols and bioethanols
Naturally integrated alcohols, most much of the time ethanol, and seldom propanol and butanol, are framed by the reaction of microorganisms and catalysts through the fermentation of sugars or starches, or cellulose. Biobutanol (additionally called biogasoline) is frequently stated to give an immediate remain in to gasoline, since it can be utilized unequivocally in a gasoline motor. Ethanol fuel is the most generally utilized biofuel around the world. Alcohol energizes are framed by fermentation of sugars got from wheat, sugar beets, corn, molasses, sugar stick and any sugar or starch from which alcoholic mixers, for example, bourbon, can be delivered, (for example, potato and natural product squander, and so forth.). The ethanol fabricating techniques connected are compound assimilation (to discharge sugars from put away starches), distillation, fermentation of the sugars and drying. Ethanol can be utilized as a part of oil motors as a substitute for gasoline; it can be mixed with gasoline to any focus. Current auto oil motors can work on blends of up to 15% bioethanol alongwith oil/gasoline. Ethanol has lesser vitality thickness than that of gasoline; this suggests it takes more fuel to create a similar measure of work. A benefit of ethanol is it's higher octane rating than without ethanol gasoline available at roadside service stations, which allows the ascent of a motor's pressure proportion for expanded warm productivity. In high-height areas, a few states coordinate a blend of gasoline and ethanol as a winter oxidizer to bring down air contamination emanations.
Track 7: Aviation Biofuels
Aviation biofuel is a biofuel used for aircraft. It is figured by some to be the foremost means by which the aviation business can decrease its carbon impression. Following a multi-year specialized investigation from aircraft producers, motor makers and oil organizations, biofuels were upheld for commercial use in July 2011. From that point forward, a few aircrafts have assessed with utilizing of biofuels on commercial flights. The spotlight of the business has now bended to cutting edge practical biofuels (second era manageable aviation energizes) that don't rival nourishment supplies nor are significant shoppers of prime rural land or crisp water.
Track 8: Food Vs Fuel Debate
Food versus fuel is the predicament with respect to the danger of diverting farmland or crops for biofuels generation to the disadvantage of the food supply. The biofuel and food value face off regarding concerns boundless perspectives, and is a withstanding, disputable one in the writing. There is a contention about the feeling of the issue, what is making it, and what can or ought to be rendered to cure the circumstance. This complexity and vulnerability is because of the wide number of blackout and feedback circles that can decidedly or contrarily influence the value framework. Besides, the relative qualities of these positive and negative effects change in the short and long terms, and involve postponed impacts. The scholastic side of the level headed discussion is likewise clouded by the materialness of various monetary models and contending types of factual examination.
Track 9: Production of Biofuels
As of now utilized fluid biofuels, which incorporate ethanol delivered from crops containing sugar and starch and biodiesel from oilseeds, are alluded to as original biofuels. These fuels just utilize a segment of the vitality possibly accessible in the biomass. Different methods are as of now being created to deliver biofuels. Nonetheless, it is indeterminate when such advancements will enter creation on a huge business scale. The generation of Biofuels should be possible from Biomass, Biodiesel from Biomass, and Biochemical from Biomass and Biogas from Biomass.
Track 10: Green Chemistry
Green chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the creating and designing of products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous chemcials.it still maintain economic growth and opportunities while providing affordable products and services to a growing world population and reduce the pollution levels as well by promoting green, safe and friendly environment.
Biomass is the organic matter got from plants which is created through photosynthesis. Specifically it can be alluded to sun based vitality put away in the compound obligations of the natural material. Notwithstanding numerous advantages regular to sustainable power source, biomass is alluring in light of the fact that it is present inexhaustible wellspring of fluid transportation of biofuel. The Bioenergy Conference and Biofuel Conferences will upgrade and improve existing frameworks. Be that as it may, biomass could play in reacting to the country's vitality requests expecting, the financial and advances in transformation advances will make biomass fuels and items all the more monetarily feasible? The sustainable power source arrangements in the European Union have just prompted a huge advance, vitality blend should additionally change till 2020.
Track 12: Bioenergy
Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials obtained from natural beginning. Biomass is any natural issue which has kept sunlight as concoction energy. As a fuel it might contain wood, straw, wood squander, sugarcane, compost, and numerous other results from various farming procedures. In its most select sense it is an equivalent word to biofuel, which is fuel gotten from organic sources. In its more extensive sense it incorporates biomass, the organic issue used as a biofuel, and in addition the social, logical, financial and specialized fields related with using natural hotspots for energy. This is a typical doubt, as bioenergy is the energy developed from the biomass, as the biomass is the fuel and the bioenergy is the energy put away in the fuel.
Track 13: Biomass technologies
A few advancements for changing over bioenergy are business today while others are being steered or in innovative work. There are four sorts of transformation advances as of now accessible, each fitting for particular biomass writes and bringing about particular vitality items, for example, Thermal Conversion, Thermochemical change, Biochemical change, Chemical transformation. The BiomassTechnologies incorporate Liquid Biofuels from Biomass and Cellulosic Ethanol from Biomass.
Track 14:Advanced Biofuels
A biofuel is a fuel that is created through contemporary natural processes. It can be gotten specifically from plants, or by implication from farming, business, household, and additionally mechanical squanders. Renewable biofuels by and large include contemporary carbon obsession, for example, those that happen in plants or microalgae through the procedure of photosynthesis. First generation biofuels are handled from the sugars and vegetable oils framed in arable harvests, which can be easily removed applying traditional innovation. In correlation, progressed biofuels are produced using lignocellulos tic biomass or woody harvests, agrarian build-ups or waste, which makes it harder to separate the essential fuel. Progressed biofuel innovations have been concocted in light of the fact that original biofuels make has real restrictions. Original biofuel forms are advantageous yet controlled by and large: there is a point of confinement above which they can't yield enough biofuel without restricting sustenance supplies and biodiversity. Numerous original biofuels depend on appropriations and are not fetched aggressive with winning non-renewable energy sources, for example, oil, and some of them yield just restricted ozone harming substance discharges reserve funds. While thinking about emanations from creation and transport, life-cycle appraisal from original biofuels more often than not approach those of conventional non-renewable energy sources. Progressed biofuels can help settling these intricacies and can give a more noteworthy extent of worldwide fuel supply reasonably, economically and with bigger natural interests.
Track 15: Renewable energy
Renewable energy will be energy that is gathered from renewable assets, which are naturally recharged on a human timescale, for example, daylight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy assets and huge open doors for energy proficiency exist over wide topographical regions, as opposed to other energy sources, which are moved in a predetermined number of nations, where energy is regularly pivotal in human improvement. Power can be changed over to heat (where important creating higher temperatures than fossil fuels), can be changed over into mechanical energy with high effectiveness and is perfect at the purpose of utilization. Notwithstanding that electrification with renewable energy is substantially more productive and accordingly prompts a noteworthy lessening in essential energy necessities, in light of the fact that most renewables don't have a steam cycle with high misfortunes (fossil influence plants more often than not have misfortunes of 40 to 65%). Renewable energy frameworks are quickly ending up more proficient and less expensive. Their offer of aggregate energy utilization is expanding. Development in utilization of coal and oil could end by 2020 because of expanded take-up of renewables and natural gas. Renewable energy streams include natural wonders, for example, daylight, wind, tides, plant development, geothermal warmth and biofuels and hydrogen got from renewable assets. It would likewise diminish environmental pollution, for example, air pollution caused by consuming of fossil fuels and enhance general wellbeing, decrease untimely mortalities because of pollution.
Track 16: Biohydrogen
Biohydrogen is depicted as hydrogen created organically, frequently by green growth, microbes and archaea. Biohydrogen is a potential biofuel achievable from both development and from squander organic materials. As of late, there is an immense interest for hydrogen. There is no record of the creation volume and utilization of hydrogen around the world, however usage of hydrogen was anticipated to have achieved 900 billion cubic meters in 2011.Refineries are vast volume makers and shoppers of hydrogen. Today 96% of all hydrogen is separated from non-renewable energy sources, with 48% from gaseous petrol, 30% from hydrocarbons, 18% from coal and around 4% by electrolysis. Oil-sands handling, gas-to-fluids and coal gasification extends that are existing, require an immense measure of hydrogen and is attempted to raise the necessity prominently inside the following couple of years. Natural directions managed in many nations, increment the hydrogen request at refineries for gas-line and diesel desulfurization. A critical future part of hydrogen could be as a trade for non-renewable energy sources, once the oil stores are exhaustede. This application is however reliant on the headway of capacity systems to empower legitimate capacity, dissemination and burning of hydrogen. On the off chance that the cost of hydrogen age, appropriation, and end-client innovations diminishes, hydrogen as a fuel could be entering the market in 2020.Industrial maturation of hydrogen, or entire cell catalysis, requires a limited measure of vitality, since splitting of water is proficient with entire cell catalysis, to decrease the initiation vitality. This grants hydrogen to be made from any organic issue that can be replicated through entire cell catalysis as this procedure does not depend on the vitality of substrate.
Renewable energy Market and recent trends
As indicated by a 2011 projection by the International Energy Agency, Solar power generators may deliver a large portion of the world's Electricity within 50 years, reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases that harm the environment. Cedric Philibert, senior investigator in the renewable energy division at the IEA stated: "Photovoltaic and Solar thermal-plants may meet a large portion of the world's interest for Electrcity by 2060 – and half of all Energy needs – with wind, hydropower and biomass plants providing a significant part of the rest of the age". "Photovoltaic and concentrated sunlight based power together can turn into the significant wellspring of power", Philibert said.
Capital speculation and innovation know-how are relied upon to be the key parameters for the business players to set up themselves in the business. The market is very divided inferable from the nearness of numerous providers. In any case, the request supply hole inferable from lacking generation limits and wide extension for R&D in the feedstock choice for the item fabricating is normal open doors for new industry players.
U.S. vegetable oil biodiesel market revenue by product 2014 - 2025 (USD Million)
Vegetable oil was the most preferable source for biodiesel production in the U.S., wherein soybean dominated the industry owing to high production volumes in the region. Initiatives taken by the U.S. government to promote biofuel in order to lower VOC emissions and dependency on crude oil is likely to drive growth.
The processing cost of vegetable oils based biodiesel is relatively lowers as compared to animal fat owing to easy manufacturing process, abundant raw material availability and high oil yield. However, the biodiesel prices do not vary significantly across the globe, as the manufacturers in different region, use different feedstock, which is easily available in the market.
Report Coverage & Deliverables
PDF report & online dashboard will help you understand:
- Competitive benchmarking
- Market forecasts
- Company market shares
- Market opportunities
- Latest trends & dynamics
Vegetable oil dominated the industry accounting for 90.9% of the overall feedstock consumption for biodiesel production owing to technology know how by majority of the manufacturers and high oil yields offered by these products. Soybean oil, canola oil, and corn oil are the major feedstock used for the production of biofuel. However, the selection of raw material varies dramatically from region to region based on the raw material availability and cost associated with this feedstock.
Biodiesel market revenue, by feedstock, 2016 (%)
The demand for gasification as a substitute for clean energy supply is growing constantly with its increased acceptance. The gasification process has found increased application in the municipal sector as well as the industrial sectors of oil and gas, chemicals, power, and others.
The demand for gasification has been estimated from the demand side in terms of volume (in MW). The report also discusses the drivers, restraints, and opportunities of the market which is directly dependent on the global gasification market. The report also tracks the activities of dominant market players and the strategies adopted by them through their contract agreements, new launches, expansions, joint ventures and others which include achievements and mergers & acquisitions.
Global Gasification Market Size, by Geography (MW)
The above figure shows the gasification market size (in MW) for various geographies for 2012 and 2019. Asia-Pacific market is the most dominant with the largest market share at present.
Major players in gasification are Royal Dutch Shell (The Netherlands), General Electric (GE)(U.S.), Air Liquide (France) and SEDIN Engineering Company Limited (China), who enjoy dominant positions in the market.
In order to get an in-depth understanding of the competition in the market, the report gives a detailed profile of ten key players in the market. The segmentation adopted for the gasification market in the report is as follows:
- Natural Gas
- Middle East & Africa
- North America
- South America
- Liquid Fuels
- Gas Fuels
By Gasifier type
- Moving/Fixed Bed
- Fluidized Bed
- Others (Plasma, FCC-Fluid Catalytic Cracking )
- POET-DSM Advanced Biofuels
- Beta Renewables / Chemtex
- Abengoa Bioenergy
- Renewable Energy Group
- Sapphire Energy
- CoolPlanet Energy Systems
- BP Biofuels
- Green Plains Renewable Energy
- Chemical Engineers
- Chemistry people
- Biotechnology engineers
- Mechanical/ Energy engineers
- Environmental engineers
- Food technology people
- Chemical Industries
- Renewable energy industries
- Biotechnology Industries
List of Notable Energy Organisations
- Danish Organisation for Renewable Energy(OVE)
- Environmental and Energy Study Institute
- European Renewable Energy Council
- International Network for Sustainable Energy(INFORSE)
- International Renewable Energy Agency(IRENA)
- Biomass Thermal Energy Council(BTEC)
- International Solar Energy Society.
- Global Wind Energy Council.
- Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation.
- 2nd World Bioenergy Congress And Expo, June 13-14, 2016, Rome, Italy
- 4th annual congress and expo on biofuels and bioenergy, april 27-28, 2017, Dubai, UAE.
- 5th world bioenergy congress and expo, june 29-30 2017, Madrid, Spain.
- 6th world congress on biofuels and bioenergy, sep 5-6, 2017, London, UK
- 7th international congress on biofuels and bioenergy october2-4, 2017,Toronto, Canada
- 9th annual congress on biofuels and bioenergy April 16-17, 2018, Dubai, UAE.
- 11th world bioenergy congress and expo, July 02-04, 2018, Berlin, Germany.
- 12th world congress on biofuels and bioenergy, September 04-06, 2018, Zurich, Switzerland.
Top Journals on Biofuels
Bioresource Technol| Biomass Bioenerg| J Am Oil Chem Soc| Fuel| Environ Sci Technol| Atmos Environ| Energ Fuel| J Power Sources| Energ Convers Manage| Energ Policy| Prog Energ Combust| Renew Energ| Fuel Process Technol| Renew Sust Energ Rev| Ind Eng Chem Res| Process Biochem| Biosens Bioelectron| Appl Catal A-Gen| Energ Source| Energy| Combust Flame| Chem Mater| Mrs Bull| Biosens Bioelectron| Climatic Change|